Councillor Martin E. Bell
District 2 - MODL
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MODL Election 2020

Saturday August 15th, 2020
To: Constituents

Today I am officially announcing that I am running to be re-elected as Councillor for District 2 in MODL which includes West Dublin, Dublin Shore, Mount Pleasant, New Cumberland, Lake Centre, LaHave, Pentz, West LaHave, Pleasantville, Conquerall Mills (section) and Conquerall Bank.

I will continue to represent District 2 at MODL Council by bringing my experience of Municipal Government, my 46 years as a community volunteer and my thirty five years of frontline skills as an EMA, PCP paramedic and EHS-dispatcher to regional politics: critical thinking, working in team environments under stressful circumstances and being held accountable to the people I serve by the decisions that I make. I speak with deeds, not words and experience as proof of what can be done.

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Investing into Affordable Housing – We grow as a Community:

[posted October 12th 2020]

Investing into Affordable Housing – We grow as a Community:

One of the more serious concerns I have heard during my 2020 election campain is the need for affordable housing for poor and working-class families. In a wealthy country like Canada with resources to assist corporations, there is something very disheartening and a real disconnect with people when we have reached this state of affairs when dealing with some of the most vulnerable individuals in our communities. Let me point out that the is a federal issue and to some degree a provincial issue. This is not a municipal issue in the Province of Nova Scotia. That being said, I do have a personal view that I will share with you.

Housing is one of our basic needs. The acquisition of accommodation is a significant challenge in today's society. Everyone must have a place to call home. However, for those most vulnerable, such as single parents, young families and seniors, affordable accommodation is an even more significant challenge. Access to suitable and adequate housing has been proven to promote health and wellness, educational performance, and an array of other quality of life benchmarks. Given the large barrios of entry, acquiring appropriate housing for poor and working-class families has become very difficult. Although the Canadian Housing Benefit helps to subsidize shelter costs for some of those living in core housing need, the banks' legislative framework and underwriting practices provide a barrio to Homeownership. For households that would otherwise meet the affordability measures of Homeownership, the unattainable barrios include the down payment percentage and upfront equity requirements for new construction. This landscape provides a business opportunity for companies with considerable financial backing to provide finished turnkey products. While this paradigm creates some positive economic spinoffs, the costs for a business to operate and profit, such as material loading percentages, labour markups, and recovery of overhead, are passed on to the client in the closing transaction. This model has a place in the market. Still, many have the wherewithal to undertake project management on their own who are excluded from transitioning along the housing continuum due to the financial lending environment. These are the clients who would stand to keep more of their hard earned dollars in their pockets.

In Nova Scotia, affordable social housing for the poor and working-class is not a municipal responsibility, but I believe there are ways we can help. Most of the broad issues are better dealt with when all three levels of government work together. One of the things that MODL has done is that we have developed an improved property tax rebate for low-income households. This can return up to $500.oo for families who qualify. Other practices we could look at include affordable housing requirements in new developments and working partnerships with the responsible authorities. Narrowing the gaps along our housing continuum is not for the faint of heart. It requires a commitment to do better by those we elect to protect and develop our communities.

Active Transportation (AT)

posted October 3rd 2020

Martin believes Active Transportation (AT) enhances quality of life, attracts business and knowledge workers to a community and contributes to economic development. Over the last 10 years, the concept of Active Transportation has been gaining popularity because the health, social, environmental, economic and tourism benefits are so substantial. That is why Martin has supported a series of upgrades to AT that includes paving the shoulders of our highways. One of the most cost-efficient and effective ways that MODL supports the development of Active Transportation infrastructure in our municipality is to partner with the Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal (NSDOTIR) to widen roads to include paved shoulders when they are being re-surfaced by NSDOTIR. MODL does this by contributing to the cost to widen the road to include shoulders for AT purposes (primarily walking and cycling). The average cost to MODL per kilometer on these projects is approximately $60,000.oo.

If you go to the MODL web site, you can check out MODL Policy PO1063 for Paved Shoulder Widths. Our involvement started four years ago in 2016 and since then the shoulders of Highway 3 in Hebbville, the Pinegrove Road, the Blue Rocks Road (2017) and Highway 325 in 2019 have already been done. Our next partnership is to include the Blue Route Zone which includes Highway 332 in Bayport in 2021 because of the close proximity to the water. Martin has expressed an interest in having Highway 331 considered during the next upgrade. (Bridgewater to at least the LaHave Ferry)

The current MODL budget carried forward a little over $400K to the 2020 fiscal year to support upcoming AT projects that will have a large and positive impact on AT in our municipality. This is a consideration I am hearing during doorstep conversations while campaigning and it’s a work in progress that started four years ago. I will continue to support the development of Active Transportation infrastructure in our municipality.

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Investing into and protecting Open Space Strategic Plan

Monday August 17th, 2020
To: Constituents

In MODL we have six rails to trails that we support. Martin has walked every single trail in MODL and fully supports the idea of making sure the trail groups that we partner with have financial support to continue their work. This is an important group of volunteers who continue to pursue expansions and address any safety issues.

River Ridge Common has had some major investment into its recreation opportunities and this park was keeping the needs of children and youth in mind as well as adults. Martin has been, and continues to be a keen supporter of River Ridge Common.

The MODL looks after the interests of the public on the Cape LaHave Island property. Martin wants to ensure individuals have the ability to camp, hunt, hike or just walk our dogs on this great 2,600 acres of prime undeveloped land. Martin wants to ensure this island stays as undeveloped land. It must be one of the few old growth forests left on the east coast. It is our understanding that the Crown turned over this land in trust to the Township-Municipality of New Dublin later to become Municipality of the District of Lunenburg. A few years ago, the federal government considered making it part of Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site as a seaside distant park but MODL did not allow that to happen. Martin wants to explore conservation options for Cape LaHave Island if it can ensure public access for years to come. We need to avoid mistakes where there once were thought to be public trails or access that over time seem to disappear. Martin points to a program where MODL works with the Mahone Islands Conservation Association (MICA) to ensure zero development but free excess by the public in a protected policy.

In recent years Martin has noticed a larger number of people visiting the island and became concerned that the property may be destroyed by overuse or abuse. MODL has no intention to sell the property, nor do they have any intention to give up our Common Lands Trust that would endanger our ability to keep the control of this land as a type of green open space status. One issue that presents a concern is that we do not have the ability to police the property and so we rely on local citizens to keep an eye on the property.

On November 26th, 2019 Martin brought forward a motion to consider working with the Nova Scotia Nature Trust on the development of a Conservation Agreement. He presented a motion that Municipal Council accept the recommendation of the Policy & Strategy Committee and direct staff to develop a Conservation Agreement with the Nova Scotia Nature Trust for Cape LaHave Island and to bring the Agreement back to a Council meeting for consideration; and further, that the Agreement developed include a community consultation process. This motion was supported unanimously by Council.

On this motion Martin included that the process include citizen engagement and planning through a community consultation process. This format was used when we asked the community to provide input when we were fighting to keep the Petite Riviere and Pentz schools open when it looked like they were closing for good. Martin wants to have the same input from those who live around the island, those who fish around the island and from those who use the island. We need their input as we seek ways to protect this property.

Another motion Martin brought forward from the Policy & Strategy Committee was to sign a Letter of Intent with the Nova Scotia Nature Trust so that MODL Council proceed with a conservation easement agreement, or a separate agreement called a, “Stewardship Plan” which when created would be a stand-alone document from an easement agreement. The Nature Trust would look at establishing a property guardians volunteer program who would help monitor and steward the Island. The Nova Scotia Nature Trust has been a registered charity since 1994 and has over 14,000 acres of outstanding lands protected, forever. Martin wants to have Cape LaHave Island protected forever from developers and he does not want any of the land sold to private individuals as all this island must remain Common Lands for everyone to enjoy.

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Aquaculture (Fish Farming) operations – let’s slow down a bit  

Tuesday, February 11, 2020
To: Constituents

With the possible establishment of open-pen fish farms, we the local council are being told this is a tremendous opportunity for us and our residents. We could see several sites like Cherry Hill, Blandford, Northwest Cove and St. Margaret’s Bay having farm licenses issued for additional aquaculture (fish farming) operations. The first fact is aquaculture licenses are issued by the Province of Nova Scotia and not by municipal units. Some may therefore say I should not have an opinion on the matter. I want to say this is a tremendous risk for us and our residents, so I believe I do have a say as I have a great interest in my neighbourhood and those who live and share the communities in my neighbourhood region.

Over the last few weeks a great deal of discussion has taken place here in our area around the pros and cons of both open-pen ocean and land-based aquaculture (fish farming). It is a complex issue requiring consideration of many things, including environmental, economic and tourism factors, to name but a few. My family and I have sailed the coastal waters around Dublin Bay, Mahone Bay and St. Margaret’s Bay for many years and know the worth and beauty of these waters.

Nova Scotia’s south shore, particularly the Municipality of the District of Lunenburg, has a proud fishing tradition and the world looks to us for leadership, innovation, and direction as we consider what our fishery will look like in the years ahead. What we do here, now, may be used by other municipalities, provinces, and indeed, countries as a template for their own development of forward-looking, fair, sustainable and responsible fisheries plans. That having been said, all aquaculture licenses are issued by the Province of Nova Scotia under Canada’s Fishery Act and Regulations, and although the municipality may have a vested interest in any direction taken, the final authority is vested with the Province.

I appreciate how many of you have called, e-mailed, and spoken to me on this matter, and I have heard your concerns, fears, and frustrations. In response to your questions, I’d like to make my position on the matter clear. It is not a position I have taken lightly or without careful consideration of your comments, along with the impacts on our people, our environment, and our economy.

I am in favour of and support land-based aquaculture operations. I am not in favour of increasing open-net pen fish farms in the inlets, coves, and bays that make up Nova Scotia’s picturesque coastline. Open pen fish farming is, today, an old technology. We need to look to the future. I am in favour of supporting new science and technology that will be used in future, land-based aquaculture. I am in favour of leaving our inshore waters in better condition for our children and our children’s children, and it is my view that increasing open-pen ocean aquaculture is not the best way to move forward.

I understand that this position may not be the one some of you may have hoped for. I appreciate the fact that good people can have different opinions. For me, the risk of open-pen fish farming along our shores exceeds the benefit we derive from it. Unless and until science can definitively prove open-ocean aquaculture is safe, we cannot and should not expand its footprint here in our province.

While some of you have expressed interest in job opportunities in these possible aquaculture operations I repeat it is a complex issue requiring consideration of many things and at this point in time I am not in favour of increasing open-net pen fish farms in our neighbourhood.

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MODL LaHave river project – program to remove straight pipes

Tuesday, June 14, 2016
To: Mayor Don Downe, and Council Members
Municipality of the District of Lunenburg

After months of work by the MODL LaHave River Project Team, four public meetings, several council working sessions, and talking to residences Councillor Bell presented the following motion onbehalf of the team and Councillors:

"that Municipal Council authorize staff to make application to the New Build Canada Fund for a Straight Pipe Replacement Program for the proposed LaHave River Wastewater Management District and to execute the Memorandum of Understanding with Nova Scotia Environment; and further, that Council direct staff to prepare a draft wastewater management district by-law and a capital replacement program, based on full cost recovery of municipal funds, for Council's consideration; the final approval of which will be contingent upon Council approval of the necessary by-law and program policies and successful award of the New Build Canada Fund."

Following the motion being made he then presented his address to Council in support of the motion. Here are excerpts from that presentation:

Today, let's think about our impact and make a positive change.

Martin Bell Presentation The Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Queensland in northeastern Australia, is the largest living thing on Earth, and even visible from outer space. The 2,300km-long ecosystem comprises thousands of reefs and hundreds of islands made of over 600 types of hard and soft coral. Twenty years ago a team of scientists from the James Cook University told us that this great living structure was starting to bleach. Bleaching is when corals are stressed by changes in conditions such as temperature, light, or nutrients. They then expel the symbiotic algae living in their tissues, causing them to turn completely white. One of the biggest contributors to this is the burning of coal by nations like Canada, China, and the United States. While we knew this for years we did nothing. Now in the last five years we have lost 15% of this largest living thing on Earth and are only now starting to pay attention. In the next five years we may very well lose another 15% or more. I point this out because many of us say, Oh well this isn’t any concern of mine. Well maybe this is too far away from us to be concerned but there are things right in our own municipality that we should be concerned about. There are things that WE can do something about if we only try in some small way.

The LaHave River, according to tests, isn’t fit to swim in. Some people, some scientists, say it shouldn’t even be boated on since you shouldn’t even touch the water. You certainly can’t drink it. The reason our river; your river, my river, Lunenburg County’s river, is polluted can be directly linked to the decades old practice of straight pipe discharge of sewage into the river from people’s homes. It’s our dirty little secret. But the secret is out. A young adult by the name of Stella Bowles who shared her science project to about 2,100 of her followers on Facebook are listening and social media shared this dirty little story with a million readers. For too many years many of our politicians and leaders have been ignoring the problem for too many years. Stella isn’t alone. People like Dr. David Maxwell, groups like the Bluenose Coastal Action Foundation, and even some politicians are beginning to wake up. It’s not the smell of roses that they’re finding, though. It’s a completely different smell. And, as you read on the front page of the Lighthouse, “Ducks don’t use toilet paper,” so don’t blame them for the problem.

We have also heard that the Town of Bridgewater places a significant volume of water that may not be fully treated but I point out they have been making a continuous investment in upgrades since the 1960’s and we need to be seen as doing the same. With new regulations we will see further improve- ments.

You’ve heard some people call it a problem of “rich people’s poo in the river.” Well, it’s more than that. It’s estimated that six hundred homes pipe their untreated, raw sewage direct into the river. At an average of one thousand litres a day, which is about the average for a three person home (345 litres per person per day), that’s six hundred thousand litres of sewage going into the river every day. Everyday. And, it’s against the law. That’s right. It’s against the law. Right now we have the opportunity to access federal funds (BCF) to help us start making things right. Right now, we can use those funds, and funds from the municipality, (which would be repaid by property owners) and maybe even funds from the province to reduce the impact on homeowners and taxpayers to install what we should have been installing for the last half century: approved septic disposal fields. And maybe, just maybe, if we act quickly, we can use federal, provincial, and municipal dollars to spread the twelve thousand dollars for each straight pipe to be fixed out over five to seven years and make the remediation easier on the pocket books of people living in those homes. Not all of them are rich people – some of them have lived in their houses for decades, or live in houses passed down to them over generations. Some of them; some of us couldn’t afford to buy the houses we live in at today’s real estate prices. They’re our friends and neighbours. They’re our brothers, sisters, cousins, parents and grandparents. Through this program we may get the price down to just $147.00 a month. But to do this we need to partner with the homeowner, the provinicial government, the federal government, and we (MODL) need to provide the leadership. We can’t provide leadership with a big stick. That’s what some individuals think is the simple route. Frankly, I’ve never seen evidence that control-based thinking and strategies produce sustainable results. Sure you can get a dog’s attention by yanking on a leash attached to a choke collar. But, as soon as the dog is off the leash, it’s either back to the old habits or if it’s had enough, attacking the person who yanked the leash. Of course these homeowners aren’t dogs, and we don’t literally leash people that continue to use straight pipes. But all of the control-based strategies by authority to order compliance by NSE or us, to control people’s behavior by using “psychological leashes” will still provide resistance without a replacement program. I do want to point out through that I feel property owners that have straight pipes are expected to financially contribute to addressing the issue and the solution. However, here is another area where we (MODL) can provide leadership. Let’s not shake that big stick at those on fixed or low incomes, but instead look at a way to defer these upgrade/replace costs until the property’s ownership is transferred. Then MODL collects all costs, plus interest at time of transfer.

Even if you don’t live on the river, you’re affected by it: every tourist dollar that it brings in; buying gas, eating in restaurants, staying overnight, boating, swimming, or just enjoying the beauty. We all living in this region need those dollars.

We’re a group. We collect and share our tax monies. This year we’ve got Capital Projects in Cookville and New Germany. We’re working on sidewalks. We’re improving Osprey Village. Not all of our projects directly help people that live in other areas of the county, but we all work together to support each other. I use the example of Church Lake access where MODL funds from all regions went to fund an asset that will be mostly used by local people but we all have the benefit of this great lake access.

Stella Bowles This river is part of our heritage. For many of us, water simply flows from a faucet, and toilets flush and take away things we don’t want to deal with. We think very little about it. We have lost our respect for the river, for the complex workings of our tidal waters, and for the complex systems of life that our river supports. Because the effluent we put into our river just doesn’t affect us – it affects the wildlife and plant life, too.

Why wait until the LaHave River estuary is beyond hope or salvage? Dr. David Suzuki says, “It shouldn't be up to young people to clean up the messes we have made. After all, we don't even allow them to vote — to choose who will make decisions on their behalf. And they will be most affected by the decisions made today.” It’s time for everyone in the area, from New Germany to Risser’s Beach, to get behind this project. We’re all travelling on the same ship, and we’re the crew. Just because you don’t work in the engine room doesn’t mean that keeping the engines running and in good shape isn’t important to you. Just because you don’t live on the river doesn’t mean it doesn’t affect your life. Or your children’s lives. Let’s fix it now.

If I may, I want to end with the words of Justin Trudeau, “We must make important changes if we want to leave the next generation with a clean environment”.

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MODL Wastewater Management – Reflecting, Prudence, Fairness and Equality

Wednesday, April 30, 2008
To: Warden Jack Wentzell, and Council Members
Municipality of the District of Lunenburg

MODL Wastewater Management – Reflecting, Prudence, Fairness and Equality Good government has the ability to change. Change is needed to address changes in time and conditions and outside forces that require our ability to seek solutions to address these changes. From time to time one must step back and look from the outside and see if what was set up is still working and is it the best arrangement for today to handle our goals and objectives. An example might be the national railroad where it was seen as being the tool to give everyone a standard of living that could deliver goods and supplies at a reasonable cost. In the early 1800’s you had the Atlantic Railroad and it extended to the Grand Trunk Railroad in Upper Canada. But profits could only be made in the east as smaller rail systems in the west cost too much to maintain or operate. Canada in 1850 was a patchwork of discontented colonies, groping their way toward united nation-hood. But Canadians then, as they do today, faced the future with confidence in themselves and faith in their destiny. By working together and setting rates at reasonable levels along all the lines and the sharing of resources it helped with continued growth westward. Canada today is a power among nations, with a great and growing influence in world affairs because of the railroads of the past. Then in the 1970’s when the eastern lines started to lose money, some in Ottawa and the office towers of Toronto and Montreal decided to lift the tracks in many areas of eastern Canada. Now in the early 2000’s we see that decision was wrong as we all pay more for goods and services like food, and industries prefer to locate in Quebec and Ontario where rail service is still available. Here we see change was needed to address changes in time and conditions and outside forces but the government failed to seek solutions to address these changes and took the easy way out. Our nation was founded on the principles of sharing the wealth and working towards solutions that gave all areas a reasonable level of service at a reasonable level of cost.

Another example is when Canada was young and Nova Scotia was considered rich we used our resources to fund growth west. Companies like Cunard Shipping and Bank of Nova Scotia provided resources that gave Nova Scotia the “have province” ability to fund Ontario and Alberta. Then suddenly areas like Nova Scotia and Newfoundland fell upon hard times and were the “have not” provinces and people in Ontario soon forgot about the help they got from the east. Well, now in year 2008, Newfoundland is moving back to the “have status” and Ontario is falling to the “have not” status. So, do we as Canadians fairly address capital resources and operating funding of these provinces, and if not do citizens living in these areas encounter hardships? On Wednesday, April 9th, the Federal Government of Canada (Hon. Baird) stated that they would ban the dumping of sewage into rivers and oceans, even sewage that has been partially treated. As we know many of our villages like Dayspring, Lahave, and Riverport now dump raw sewage into the river and our citizens will inevitably face increased taxes through Area Rates or sewage fees because of the new federal rules. This is an example of why more than ever this Council must go to a Global Rate for wastewater treatment or the MODL are going to have to get use to the idea of using General Taxes to help fund Area Rates.

Our own Provincial Environment Minister the Hon. Mark Parent said Atlantic communities, many of which don’t even have primary sewage treatment, lag behind the rest of the country, where many communities are doing secondary treatment. Look at how many straight pipes don't allow for any treatment right now. We have several Shore Drive style areas that the MODL are going to have to address. There are also areas like Turner Heights in Lower Branch and areas off the Pine Grove Road area where future requests may come for assistance to develop municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

I have been saying for six years now that in developing any policy it is prudent to establish a framework of principles or goals which will form the basis against which that policy is implemented or applied. Some of those ideas I was able to get passed as you already know. Fiscal responsibility, prudence, fairness and equality should be the cornerstones of this process regardless of what community you reside in.

In considering a sanitary sewer policy, it should be noted that only a few areas of the Municipality are served by central sewer systems but under new incoming Federal laws there may be many more. While the majority of properties have private on-site sewage systems, Municipal Councils have determined that the public interest would best be served by developing a public sewer system in certain communities. The wastewater sanitary sewer policy should fairly address capital and operating funding of these public systems and should not be sidetracked by the reality that most property owners in the Municipality bear the cost of their individual private onsite systems.

Fiscal responsibility and prudence, when sensibly applied, suggests that capital funding recovery should be placed as fully as possible on those who directly benefit from connection to the sanitary sewer system. However, the level of capital recovery should not be so high as to drive existing property owners from their home or business or stifle any reasonable prospect for new development or renewal within the sewer system catchment area.

The cornerstones of fairness and equality should recognize that while there is uniformity to the sewer service provided, there are considerable variables in both the capital and operating costs of each Municipal sewer system. It is further noted that the principle of universality forms the foundation of many government policies. For example, postage for a letter is constant irrespective whether the letter goes just a mile or across the country. So, should there be wide variations between area rates levied for the various sewer systems in our Municipality? The lack of size and scale in all our sewer systems has produced wide variations in costs to build and operate each sewer system, but in actuality a common level of service is provided within all serviced areas like New Germany, Conquerall Bank, Hebbville, or Cookville. It should also be noted that the benefits of a central sewer system extend well beyond the system's service or catchment area. For example, businesses in serviced areas benefit from their connection to the sewer system, but their customer base is much larger. Is it a coincidence that the overwhelming percentage of our retail and service businesses are connected to public sewer systems. A prudent sewer policy may also be a factor in economic development like it was in Osprey Village or exit 12 area. We as a Council know the importance of further development of the serviced area at Osprey Village.

While the service level is consistent across the various sewer systems, the unit costs to build and sustain each system varies widely due to an array of topographic factors, density of service connections and the proportion of commercial to residential assessment within the service catchment area. The Hebbville system, as an example, is doubly blessed by having a significant revenue stream guaranteed by an agreement with the Bridgewater Public Service Commission (which also paid a substantial portion of the last upgrade to the system when the water treatment plant was built) and by the fact that the Hebbville system is only a flow-through system with no treatment component. While it is true that an annual fee is paid to the Town of Bridgewater, that cost is very favorable relative to the capital and operating costs that would be incurred by property owners within this system area if this Municipality were required to operate its own sewage treatment plant to service the Hebbville system.

The Municipality needs a sewer policy that requires as much of the cost as possible; both capital and operating; to be levied on those properties connected, or capable of being connected, to a public sewer system. Given the small scale of our systems, however, some capital costs may have to be carried on the general tax rate at least until adequate reserve funding is put in place. All properties within a public sewer catchment area should share a similar level of cost for this same service level irrespective of which sewer service area they are within. We do this with other services, like solid waste. In that case, the cost to collect and transport waste is higher from more distant communities such as Lapland than from Oakhill, but the cost base for this service is per stop, irrespective of the location of that stop. So someone who lives in Dublin Shore or Baker Settlement pays the same General Rate even if it costs the MODL more to collect their garbage than say Dayspring’s or Oakhill’s. A similar blended rate should apply to at least operating cost recovery for all Municipal sewer systems.

Another example of fiscal responsibility, prudence, fairness and equality was a letter from our very own Council to Mr. Lyle Goldberg, of the UNSM in March of this year. In that letter we stated that the capping of assessment has had a positive impact on reducing the cost of services from the Province to municipalities with high assessment growth, such as the MODL. The example we used is if the CAP were to be eliminated, the MODL could lose over $600,000 to extra education payments next year. The CAP prevents further shifts to the MODL in education and other provincial service costs that are based on uniform assessment. With the CAP in place we have a level of certainty for our property owners. We also understand there are residents that have difficulty paying their tax bills due to rising assessments. If we added an Area Rate of anywhere from 18 cents to one dollar and forty seven cents we would increase difficulty for these same residences but yet are providing them all the same type of service. Let’s provide for that same positive impact on reducing the cost of services when those services are the same and give a level of certainty for our property owners.

Thank you for taking time to read my comments and I would be glad to provide additional comparisons for your consideration.

Councillor Martin E. Bell, PCP, EMD-Q, CMG

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